Hunspell stemmer - Elasticsearch 权威指南中文版


Hunspell stemmer

发布于 2019-07-04 字数 8609 浏览 858 评论 0

=== Hunspell Stemmer

Elasticsearch provides (((“dictionary stemmers”, “Hunspell stemmer”)))(((“stemming words”, “dictionary stemmers”, “Hunspell stemmer”)))dictionary-based stemming via the[`hunspell` token filter].
Hunspell[_hunspell.sourceforge.net_] is the
spell checker used by Open Office, LibreOffice, Chrome, Firefox, Thunderbird, and many
other open and closed source projects.

Hunspell dictionaries(((“Hunspell stemmer”, “obtaining a Hunspell dictionary”))) can be obtained from the following:

  •[_extensions.openoffice.org_]: Download and
    unzip the .oxt extension file.
    Download and unzip the .xpi addon file.
  •[OpenOffice archive]: Download and unzip the .zip file.

A Hunspell dictionary consists of two files with the same base name–such as
en_US—but with one of two extensions:


Contains all the root words, in alphabetical order, plus a code representing
all possible suffixes and prefixes (which collectively are known as _affixes_)


Contains the actual prefix or suffix transformation for each code listed
in the `.dic` file

==== Installing a Dictionary

The Hunspell token (((“Hunspell stemmer”, “installing a dictionary”)))filter looks for dictionaries within a dedicated Hunspell
directory, which defaults to ./config/hunspell/. The .dic and .aff
files should be placed in a subdirectory whose name represents the language
or locale of the dictionaries. For instance, we could create a Hunspell
stemmer for American English with the following layout:


config/ └ hunspell/ └ en_US/ ├ en_US.dic ├ en_US.aff └ settings.yml

The location of the Hunspell directory can be changed by setting
`indices.analysis.hunspell.dictionary.location` in the
`config/elasticsearch.yml` file.
`en_US` will be the name of the locale or `language` that we pass to the
`hunspell` token filter.
Per-language settings file, described in the following section.

==== Per-Language Settings

The settings.yml file contains settings(((“Hunspell stemmer”, “per-language settings”))) that apply to all of the
dictionaries within the language directory, such as these:


ignore_case: true
strict_affix_parsing: true

The meaning of these settings is as follows:


Hunspell dictionaries are case sensitive by default: the surname Booker is a
different word from the noun booker, and so should be stemmed differently. It
may seem like a good idea to use the hunspell stemmer in case-sensitive
mode,(((“Hunspell stemmer”, “using in case insensitive mode”))) but that can complicate things:

  • A word at the beginning of a sentence will be capitalized, and thus appear
    to be a proper noun.
  • The input text may be all uppercase, in which case almost no words will be
  • The user may search for names in all lowercase, in which case no capitalized
    words will be found.

As a general rule, it is a good idea to set ignore_case to true.


The quality of dictionaries varies greatly.(((“Hunspell stemmer”, “strict_affix_parsing”))) Some dictionaries that are
available online have malformed rules in the .aff file. By default, Lucene
will throw an exception if it can’t parse an affix rule. If you need to deal
with a broken affix file, you can set strict_affix_parsing to false to tell
Lucene to ignore the broken rules.(((“strict_affix_parsing”)))

.Custom Dictionaries

If multiple dictionaries (.dic files) are placed in the same
directory, (((“Hunspell stemmer”, “custom dictionaries”)))they will be merged together at load time. This allows you to
tailor the downloaded dictionaries with your own custom word lists:


config/ └ hunspell/ └ en_US/ ├ en_US.dic ├ en_US.aff ├ custom.dic └ settings.yml

The `custom` and `en_US` dictionaries will be merged.
Multiple `.aff` files are not allowed, as they could use
conflicting rules.

The format of the .dic and .aff files is discussed in

==== Creating a Hunspell Token Filter

Once your dictionaries are installed on all nodes, you can define a hunspell
token filter(((“Hunspell stemmer”, “creating a hunspell token filter”))) that uses them:


PUT /my_index { “settings”: { “analysis”: { “filter”: { “en_US”: { “type”: “hunspell”, “language”: “en_US” } }, “analyzer”: { “en_US”: { “tokenizer”: “standard”, “filter”: [ “lowercase”, “en_US” ] } } } } }

The `language` has the same name as the directory where
the dictionary lives.

You can test the new analyzer with the analyze API,
and compare its output to that of the english analyzer:


GET /my_index/_analyze?analyzer=en_US

GET /_analyze?analyzer=english reorganizes

Returns `organize`
Returns `reorgan`

An interesting property of the hunspell stemmer, as can be seen in the
preceding example, is that it can remove prefixes as well as as suffixes. Most
algorithmic stemmers remove suffixes only.

Hunspell dictionaries can consume a few megabytes of RAM. Fortunately,
Elasticsearch creates only a single instance of a dictionary per node. All
shards that use the same Hunspell analyzer share the same instance.


==== Hunspell Dictionary Format

While it is not necessary to understand the(((“Hunspell stemmer”, “Hunspell dictionary format”))) format of a Hunspell dictionary in
order to use the hunspell tokenizer, understanding the format will help you
write your own custom dictionaries. It is quite simple.

For instance, in the US English dictionary, the en_US.dic file contains an entry for
the word analyze, which looks like this:



The en_US.aff file contains the prefix or suffix rules for the A, G,
D, and S flags. Each flag consists of a number of rules, only one of
which should match. Each rule has the following format:


[type] [flag] [letters to remove] [letters to add] [condition]

For instance, the following is suffix (SFX) rule D. It says that, when a
word ends in a consonant (anything but a, e, i, o, or u) followed by
a y, it can have the y removed and ied added (for example, ready ->


SFX D y ied [^aeiou]y

The rules for the A, G, D, and S flags mentioned previously are as follows:


SFX D 0 d e
SFX D y ied [^aeiou]y
SFX D 0 ed [^ey]
SFX D 0 ed [aeiou]y

SFX S y ies [^aeiou]y
SFX S 0 s [aeiou]y
SFX S 0 es [sxzh]
SFX S 0 s [^sxzhy]

SFX G e ing e
SFX G 0 ing [^e]

PFX A Y 1 PFX A 0 re .

`analyze` ends in an `e`, so it can become `analyzed` by adding a `d`.
`analyze` does not end in `s`, `x`, `z`, `h`, or `y`, so it can become
`analyzes` by adding an `s`.
`analyze` ends in an `e`, so it can become `analyzing` by removing the `e`
and adding `ing`.
The prefix `re` can be added to form `reanalyze`. This rule can be
combined with the suffix rules to form `reanalyzes`, `reanalyzed`,

More information about the Hunspell syntax can be found on the[Hunspell documentation site].

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