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Popularity

发布于 2019-07-04 字数 7615 浏览 896 评论 0

[[boosting-by-popularity]]
=== Boosting by Popularity

Imagine that we have a website that hosts blog posts and enables users to vote for the
blog posts that they like.(((“relevance”, “controlling”, “boosting by popularity”)))(((“popularity”, “boosting by”)))(((“boosting”, “by popularity”))) We would like more-popular posts to appear higher in the
results list, but still have the full-text score as the main relevance driver.
We can do this easily by storing the number of votes with each blog post:

[role=”pagebreak-before”] [source,json]

PUT /blogposts/post/1 { “title”: “About popularity”, “content”: “In this post we will talk about…”, “votes”: 6 }

At search time, we can use the function_score query (((“function_score query”, “field_value_factor function”)))(((“field_value_factor function”)))with the
field_value_factor function to combine the number of votes with the full-text relevance score:

[source,json]

GET /blogposts/post/_search { “query”: { “function_score”: { “query”: { “multi_match”: { “query”: “popularity”, “fields”: [ “title”, “content” ] } }, “field_value_factor”: { “field”: “votes” } } } }

The `function_score` query wraps the main query and the function we would
like to apply.
The main query is executed first.
The `field_value_factor` function is applied to every document matching
the main `query`.
Every document _must_ have a number in the `votes` field for
the `function_score` to work.

In the preceding example, the final _score for each document has been altered as
follows:

new_score = old_score * number_of_votes

This will not give us great results. The full-text _score range
usually falls somewhere between 0 and 10. As can be seen in <>, a blog post with 10 votes will
completely swamp the effect of the full-text score, and a blog post with 0
votes will reset the score to zero.

[[img-popularity-linear]]
.Linear popularity based on an original _score of 2.0
image::images/elas_1701.png[Linear popularity based on an original _score of 2.0]

==== modifier

A better way to incorporate popularity is to smooth out the votes value
with some modifier. (((“modifier parameter”)))(((“field_value_factor function”, “modifier parameter”)))In other words, we want the first few votes to count a
lot, but for each subsequent vote to count less. The difference between 0
votes and 1 vote should be much bigger than the difference between 10 votes
and 11 votes.

A typical modifier for this use case is log1p, which changes the formula
to the following:

new_score = old_score * log(1 + number_of_votes)

The log function smooths out the effect of the votes field to provide a
curve like the one in <>.

[[img-popularity-log]]
.Logarithmic popularity based on an original _score of 2.0
image::images/elas_1702.png[Logarithmic popularity based on an original _score of 2.0]

The request with the modifier parameter looks like the following:

[source,json]

GET /blogposts/post/_search { “query”: { “function_score”: { “query”: { “multi_match”: { “query”: “popularity”, “fields”: [ “title”, “content” ] } }, “field_value_factor”: { “field”: “votes”, “modifier”: “log1p” } } } }

Set the `modifier` to `log1p`.

[role=”pagebreak-before”]
The available modifiers are none (the default), log, log1p, log2p,
ln, ln1p, ln2p, square, sqrt, and reciprocal. You can read more
about them in the
http://www.elasticsearch.org/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/query-dsl-function-score-query.html#_field_value_factor[`field_value_factor` documentation].

==== factor

The strength of the popularity effect can be increased or decreased by
multiplying the value(((“factor (function_score)”)))(((“field_value_factor function”, “factor parameter”))) in the votes field by some number, called the
factor:

[source,json]

GET /blogposts/post/_search { “query”: { “function_score”: { “query”: { “multi_match”: { “query”: “popularity”, “fields”: [ “title”, “content” ] } }, “field_value_factor”: { “field”: “votes”, “modifier”: “log1p”, “factor”: 2 } } } }

Doubles the popularity effect

Adding in a factor changes the formula to this:

new_score = old_score * log(1 + factor * number_of_votes)

A factor greater than 1 increases the effect, and a factor less than 1
decreases the effect, as shown in <>.

[[img-popularity-factor]]
.Logarithmic popularity with different factors
image::images/elas_1703.png[Logarithmic popularity with different factors]

==== boost_mode

Perhaps multiplying the full-text score by the result of the
field_value_factor function (((“function_score query”, “boost_mode parameter”)))(((“boost_mode parameter”)))still has too large an effect. We can control
how the result of a function is combined with the _score from the query by
using the boost_mode parameter, which accepts the following values:

multiply::
Multiply the _score with the function result (default)

sum::
Add the function result to the _score

min::
The lower of the _score and the function result

max::
The higher of the _score and the function result

replace::
Replace the _score with the function result

If, instead of multiplying, we add the function result to the _score, we can
achieve a much smaller effect, especially if we use a low factor:

[source,json]

GET /blogposts/post/_search { “query”: { “function_score”: { “query”: { “multi_match”: { “query”: “popularity”, “fields”: [ “title”, “content” ] } }, “field_value_factor”: { “field”: “votes”, “modifier”: “log1p”, “factor”: 0.1 }, “boost_mode”: “sum” } } }

Add the function result to the `_score`.

The formula for the preceding request now looks like this (see <>):

new_score = old_score + log(1 + 0.1 * number_of_votes)

[[img-popularity-sum]]
.Combining popularity with sum
image::images/elas_1704.png[“Combining popularity with sum“]

==== max_boost

Finally, we can cap the maximum effect(((“function_score query”, “max_boost parameter”)))(((“max_boost parameter”))) that the function can have by using the
max_boost parameter:

[source,json]

GET /blogposts/post/_search { “query”: { “function_score”: { “query”: { “multi_match”: { “query”: “popularity”, “fields”: [ “title”, “content” ] } }, “field_value_factor”: { “field”: “votes”, “modifier”: “log1p”, “factor”: 0.1 }, “boost_mode”: “sum”, “max_boost”: 1.5 } } }

Whatever the result of the `field_value_factor` function, it will never be
greater than `1.5`.

NOTE: The max_boost applies a limit to the result of the function only, not
to the final _score.

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